Do you, like many, think that drug addicts become drug addicts because they derive greater reward from getting high than others? The biology says no: They actually seem to want it more but like it less.
“In the months after the iMac launch, the A team also perfected a new methodology for developing products. Called the Apple new product process, or ANPP, it would emerge as one of the keys to Apple’s success.
Not surprisingly, in the world according to Steve Jobs, the ANPP would rapidly evolve into a well-defined process for bringing new products to market by laying out in extreme detail every stage of product development.
Embodied in a program that runs on the company’s internal network, the ANPP resembled a giant checklist. It detailed exactly what everyone was to do at every stage for every product, with instructions for every department ranging from hardware to software, and on to operations, finance, marketing, even the support teams that troubleshoot and repair the product after it goes to market. “It’s everything from the supply chain to the stores,” said one former executive. “It’s hooked into all the suppliers and the suppliers’ suppliers. Hundreds of companies. Everything from the paint and the screws to the chips.”
The ANPP involves every department from the outset, including functions like marketing, whose work will only be seen after the product is launched. “It’s very important at Apple that the needs of the customer and needs to compete in the marketplace are considered when we create a product right from the beginning,” said Apple’s head of marketing Phil Schiller. “[M]arketing is an equal member of the team creating our products, along with the engineering and operations team.”
“The system applied to Jony’s department, too, as the designers now had to tick off all of the steps, from investigation and concept to design and production. Sally Grisedale, former manager of Apple’s advanced technology group (which worked closely with the design group), said it was the systematic documentation that set Apple’s ANPP apart.
“It’s all written down. It has to be. There are so many moving parts,” she said. “Even when I was there, all the processes were worked out. That’s why [Apple] was such a perfect company to work for, because they had booklets on how they do it, and they helped you, when building the software or the hardware. It had to be really systematic. So it was a very rude awakening for me to go a different company like Excite or Yahoo because they had none of that! Nothing written down. Like, Process? Are you kidding? Just “ship it and get it out there!”
Another inspiration for the ANPP was the modern engineering management system known as “concurrent engineering,” which permits different departments to work in parallel (unlike the old model, under which projects get passed from one team to another in serial).”
“At the old Apple, the engineers would work on a product before passing it to the designers to skin it. This wouldn’t work for Jobs’s new Apple, with the increased primacy of the ID studio.”
As for GMO? Rest assured, genetically modified foods won’t kill you either. GMO corn won’t cause cancer, but the stress you endure while you worry about it will raise your risk. (Tidbit: We owe a lot of the hysteria around GMO to British environmentalist Mark Lynas, who was at the heart of the anti-GMO movement. In January 2013, Mr. Lynas changed his mind completely and is now a staunch GMO advocate. Why? In his words: “Well, the answer is fairly simple: I discovered science, and in the process I hope I became a better environmentalist.” Amen to that.)
Should you eat gluten free? Low carb? Vegan? Raw? Low fat? Follow Weight Watchers? In truth, it doesn’t really matter as long as you enjoy what you’re eating, your body seems to love it, and you’re not forcing yourself to adhere to an impossibly strict protocol that probably lacks certain nutrients by virtue of its restrictions